The Dutchman was 0.441s clear of George Russell’s Mercedes as he comfortably claimed his 10th pole of 2023 and the 30th of his F1 career.
Verstappen will clinch his third consecutive world championship if he scores three points in Saturday’s sprint race.
His Red Bull teammate Sergio Perez endured his latest qualifying shocker and will line up only 13th for Sunday’s main grand prix after being dumped out in Q2.
Mercedes’ Lewis Hamilton will line up third on the grid after both McLaren drivers saw their fastest lap times deleted for track limits infringements.
Aston Martin’s Fernando Alonso was promoted to fourth, while Ferrari’s Charles Leclerc was also elevated one position to fifth.
McLaren’s Oscar Piastri fell from third to sixth, ahead of the the Alpine pair of Pierre Gasly and Esteban Ocon.
Valtteri Bottas moved up to eighth in his Alfa Romeo, while Lando Norris dropped to 10th having initially set a lap time good enough for the front row of the grid.
Perez also fell foul of track limits in his Q2 elimination, leaving him one place behind Ferrari’s Carlos Sainz.