Robert Kubica has made his first return to driving a Formula 1 car since 2011 in a private Renault test in Valencia.

According to Renault, the former F1 Grand Prix winner completed 115 laps in the 2012-spec Lotus E20 and 'complained about grip, understeer [and] downforce' to mark his maiden F1 return since his rallying crash in Andorra in 2011.

The Polish driver had been making tentative steps towards short circuit racing after testing a GP3 Series car at Franciacorta in Italy, a Formula E car at Donington Park and an LMP2 Dallara challenger for SMP Racing at Monza.

Kubica had been pencilled in for an LMP1 race seat in this year's FIA World Endurance Championship for ByKolles but pulled out just days before the season opener at Silverstone.

Kubica's last official F1 race came at the 2010 season finale for Renault before suffering injuries in his rallying accident during the off-season.