Headlining the new developments was a revised RC16 chassis while the earlier parts on display included the original 2022 fairing.

KTM began the year using a front wing plus sidepods set-up, before going back to its 2021-style configuration by removing the sidepods, which counted as each rider’s one available in-season fairing update.

But both aero packages, with sidepods (higher downforce) and without, remain unavailable for use, hence the benefit of retesting and gaining a better understanding of each.

“Basically the aero package that we had [with sidepods], forced us to go in a different direction with the setting, which we were not used to,” Miguel Oliveira explained at Mugello.

“It had some advantages and some disadvantages but especially the turning was affected. Without the pods [the fairing update] put us into a more normal setting, so we could turn faster. But turning is still a big weakness for us.”

“An improvement, that we're all hoping for so desperately, is natural turning,” agreed Tech3’s Remy Gardner, prior to the test.

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Oliveira factory team-mate Brad Binder, eighth in Sunday’s race, was again the fastest of the ‘orange’ riders on Monday, in eleventh place (+0.551s).

“We got the opportunity to back-test many things and try a few new ones but the main target was to gather information and to give the team a good direction to head for the future,” said the South African.

“I tried a new chassis that predictably had some positives but also negatives and it is important we take out the positive parts to help us. I understand both [2022] aero packages a bit better now and had the time to play around a little bit. Going forward I’m excited to see what we can do.”

Next best on the timesheets was Oliveira, in 14th but only 0.641s from the best lap of the day by Yamaha’s race winner Fabio Quartararo.

“We did the best lap-time in really hot conditions with the medium rear tyre and that was not so bad,” said the Portuguese, who is being linked with a move away from KTM to Gresini Ducati for 2023.

“We tested a couple of different small things - such as a setting with the swingarm - and delivered some feedback. All positive, especially for a low grip track and that was what we wanted to focus on.”

A fraction slower than Oliveira was rookie Remy Gardner. The Australian tried the chassis and both aero options (pictured with the older fairing), as well as working on his time attacks.

“We had a really positive day today and we made some improvements which I am happy with,” said Gardner, who took his best MotoGP finish to date with eleventh in the race.

“We tried a few things which came out unexpectedly positive and that we will study for the upcoming races.

“I had fun as I rode a lot of laps and learned a lot more about the bike and the tyres, and this will give me confidence to continue progressing. I was able to go fast when needed, but also had a good pace all day long.

“We tried different parts as well with the aim to help me feeling better when braking.

“I would say that there were both good and negative points, so we will see what we can do with this. I feel that I have taken a good step this weekend with the result on Sunday and today’s work, and I feel positive about what’s coming.”

Team-mate and fellow rookie Raul Fernandez, who took his first premier-class point with 15th on Sunday, was 22nd and last on the timesheets (+1.697s).

The Spaniard’s main aim was to improve feeling on corner entry, which the new chassis was also designed to improve, plus a new front fork and race pace on used tyres.

“Today was more about focusing on trying to resolve the weaknesses that we have been encountering since the start of the season,” Fernandez said. “We focused on my riding as we tried some set ups on the front of the bike to help me feel more confident when I enter the corners, which will allow me to push harder.

“Another important point that I have been struggling with is tyre management for the second half of the race, so we worked on the race pace with used tyres. We found some interesting things that we will use for the upcoming races, so I look forward to heading to Sachsenring.”

Francesco Guidotti, Red Bull KTM Factory Racing Team Manager, said: “An important day. We’re almost at the halfway stage of the season and it is key to check and back-check and we also had something new for the future.

“Of course we will need time to analyse all the information as we worked through some suspension, electronics and adjustments to the frame. The conditions were not so easy, particularly the level of grip, so we need more comparisons. We did a lot today but we will also work a lot more at home.”

Aside from KTM, Yamaha is the only other manufacturer to have so far introduced it’s one in-season aero update.